# Terrorismo

The connection between the Muslim Brotherhood and political activist Linda Sarsour

The Muslim Brotherhood branch in the US (USMB)

Dr. Alba Popescu collaborating analyst of OCATRY (Observatory against the Terrorist Threat and the Jihadist Radicalization) of SECINDEF (Security, Intelligence and Defense) Israel-USA International Consulting Counterterrorism.

In 1963, in Illinois University Campus, the Muslim Students Association, the first organization of the Muslim Brotherhood in the US, was set up (a very short brief about the evolution of this organization can be found in the Annex 1). Subsequently, other organizations have been founded, such as: Council on American-Islamic Relations, North American Islamic Trust Council, North American Islamic Fund in 1971, Islamic Society of North America and International Institute of Islamic Thought in 1981, the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development in 1989, the American Muslim Council[1] in 1990, the Muslim American Society in 1993, the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) in 1994[2], Association of Muslim Social Scientists etc.

In December 2001, the US authorities had banned the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development as a result of its involvement in the financing of Hamas terrorism[3]. Though the links between the Holy Land Foundation and the Muslim Brotherhood[4] have been well documented – there are on-line records showing Muslim Brotherhood’s subversive activity in the US[5] – the Muslim Brotherhood activity is still legal in the US. Simultaneously, with the development of the USMB’s media and academia branches, the process of expanding its local political branch has continued.

During Holy Land Foundation terrorism financing trial several documents have been released, showing an extensive network that encompasses many organizations and groups controlled by a central command structure. For example:

  • the Preliminary vision for preparing future leadership[6], dated December 1988 and signed by M.A. (likely Mohamed Akram[7]), which contains MB’s settlement / development strategy within the US territory. In this document there is a spreadsheet with a column called The Apparatuses – the name used by the central MB for its public and covert groups and organizations. With the exception of the International Institute of Islamic Thought, all the above mentioned organizations have been found among The Apparatuses. Within the same document there is a note about covert structures: The Shura[8], composed by 15 members led by Al-Qadi – Elkadi Ahmed, head of the U.S. MB[9] (Akram was member of the Shura), The Office, Security, The Sisters, Special Committee, Palestine C. (Palestine Committee – also known as Hamas in the US) etc.
  • An Explanatory Memorandum, On the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America, 5/22/1991[10], which contains the implementing rules of the previous document, signed again by Mohamed Akram. At the end of the document there is a list of Apparatuses which includes the International Institute of Islamic Thought as well.

Both documents are emphasizing USMB’s goal – the Islamist colonization of the US: “The general strategic goal of the Group in America which was approved by the Shura Council and the Organizational Conference for the year (I987)” is the “enablement of Islam in North America, meaning: establishing an effective and a stable Islamic Movement led by the MuslimBrotherhood which adopts Muslims’ causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims’ efforts, presents Islam as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic State wherever it is.”

Against the backdrop of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, in 1979, (Sheikh) Abdullah Yusuf Azzam – a Palestinian cleric and member of the Muslim Brotherhood since the 1950s, known as the “father” of global Jihad – issued a Fatwa – decree in which he stated that the defense of the Muslim Lands is the first obligation of Muslims after the faith in Allah[11]. Located, in the early 1980s, in the Pakistani town of Peshawar, Azzam has set up Bait ul-Ansarthe House of Help, an Islamic relief organization designed to support the jihadists’ struggle against the Soviet invaders in Afghanistan[12]. In 1981, Saudi entrepreneur Osama bin Laden, Azzam’s former student at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah[13], has been convinced by his professor to move to Peshawar and to finance Jihadists’ training camps, most of these Jihadists being members of the Brotherhood[14]. In 1984, in Peshawar, the two of them have founded Maktab al-Khidamatthe Office of Services (also known as Al KifahThe Wrestling) to coordinate and to fund the Al-Mujaahid’ recruitment and training activities in Afghanistan[15]. Maktab al-Khidamat assured the funding of the 1980s Islamist groups to act in Afghanistan and other Asian states[16].

In the 1980s, Azzam conducted an intense campaign of proselytism and of fundraising in states in Europe, the Middle East, and in 50 American cities[17]. The first American branch of Maktab al-Khidamat (Al Kifah) was the Islamic Center of Tucson Arizona, already operational in 1984. In few years, MB’s network in the US comprised more than 30 branches involved into fundraising for the Jihadists in Afghanistan. The most important US branch was the one located in Brooklyn, New York, known as the Al Kifah Refugee Center[18]. Al Kifah Refugee Center has been officially provided with a mosque, Masjid al-Fukra, where the “Blind Sheikh” Omar Abdel-Rahman was preaching[19]. “Blind Sheikh” used to preach to a neighboring mosque too, Masjid at-Taqwa. Masjid at-Taqwa has been settled by Siraj Wahaj, using Saudi petro-Dollars[20]. In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the USA (through the CIA) have supported, through weapons, logistics and expertise, Azzam’s (Jihadists’) network recruiting and training as well as its military actions against the Soviet presence in the region. In February 1989, after Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Azzam and bin Laden have decided to continue the struggle to liberate “the lands of Islam” and have set up the Al Qa’ida organization. In November 1989, Azzam was killed in a bomb attack.

In 1993, the first Islamist attack against the World Trade Center in New York has been registered. This attack has triggered the third wave of the Islamist terrorism. Although attackers’ connections have pointed towards (MB’s) Maktab al-Khidamat Center in Brooklyn, New York, the US authorities have not taken any significant action against the Islamist network[21]. The only remarkable action had been the arrest of the “Blind Sheikh” Omar Abdel-Rahman, whose activities had been related to the New York Muslim Brotherhood branch. Although Abdel-Rahman has been known for his radical attitude, he has benefited from the support of the CIA, which has facilitated his entry visa into the United States, and later, his status as a resident[22].

Al-Qa’ida’s attacks against the US, in September 11, 2001, were the peak of the third wave of Islamist terrorism. Since 9/11, public perception regarding the Islamist terrorism has changed. The Islamist terrorism has stopped being perceived as a collateral phenomenon of the Arab-Israeli conflict and has become a global asymmetric threat which has been, later, described in NATO’s strategic concept. The global media coverage of the attack has brought to the forefront both the radical Islamism and the need for countermeasures. Public opinion attention has been captured by Al Qa’ida, by the Afghani Taliban and by the war against terrorism, having little to no interest in other Islamist organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhood, though 9/11 strategist, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, has been a member of the Kuwaiti Brotherhood since adolescence[23].

All this time, the Muslim Brotherhood has strengthened its political and social wing by developing a complex and very extensive network of Islamic financial, charitable relief organizations designed to provide financial support to the organization’s projects[24]. This financial support has increasingly focused on media outlets[25], academia[26] and influential think-tanks[27]. Thus, since 2002, Muslim Brotherhood has been re-branded by the global media (such as the TV channel Al Jazeera) as a reformist movement, which has been subjected to the repression of Arab world’s authoritarian regimes and has been a firewall against terrorist organizations[28].

Linda Sarsour

Former director of the Arab American Association of New York, Palestinian-American Linda Sarsour has become Obama administration’s Champion of Change, delegate to the Democratic National Convention and one of four lead organizers for the Women’s March.

Although she has always said she has no connection with the USMB Islamists she:

  • has been invited to speech at USMB organizations’ conventions and reunions, such as Muslim American Society[29], Islamic Circle of North America[30] and the Council of American Islamic Relations[31].
  • takes photos with Salah Sarsour – a member of the Islamic Society of Milwaukee, former Hamas operative[32] who was jailed in Israel in the 1990s, connected with the Holy Land Foundation. Perhaps Salah Sarsour is her cousin, based on her statement that she has cousins jailed in Israel for Hamas affiliation[33].
  • has been arrested along with other CAIR members for civil disobedience[34]
  • has written a tweet in 2011, during the “Arab Spring”, saying: „Yo the Muslim Brotherhood knows how to parrrttaaay! So much for radical islamists taking over! If these r – they r da coolest! #jan25 #Egypt[35]
  • has been publicly called “sister” by American Muslims for Palestine[36] in a public letter aimed to support her against “Islamophobia”:

Dear Linda:

 You have become the beacon of hope for so many Muslim Americans as well as a catalyst who spurs people on to positive action. The American Muslims for Palestine truly appreciates your tireless efforts on behalf of communities impacted by racism and bigotry and for standing up for Palestinian rights. You have a major platform where you can affect much good.

 We are writing to offer you our unconditional support in the face of the bigotry and attacks you’re enduring currently. We know that any Muslim, particularly Palestinian American Muslims who are visible and politically active, are always targets for hatred and silencing tactics and we’re sorry you are going through this right now because of your excellent work helping to organize the Women’s March on Washington.

 We pray for your protection and we pray that Allah SWT grants you patience and comfort during these difficult days. AMP is here for you and stands ready to support you in any way we can.

 Sincerely,

 The American Muslims for Palestine”

American Muslims for Palestine is a Hamas connected organization, aiming to delegitimize the state of Israel in America[37]. Salah Sarsour is board member of this organization[38] and has been seen in the close cercle of Sumeyye Erdogan Bayraktar, the daughter of Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, during her visit at Muslim American Society and Islamic Circle of North America (MAS-ICNA) annual convention[39].

  • has been publicly supported by USMB – CAIR: “The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), the nation’s largest Muslim civil rights and advocacy organization, today called on people of all faiths and backgrounds to “push back” against an online smear campaign targeting Linda Sarsour– a nationally-known and respected Muslim community activist — using #IStandWithLinda”.[40]
  • thanked her “favorite person in this room…Imam Siraj Wahhaj, who has been a mentor, motivator, and encourager of mine” – at a banquet organized by ICNA Relief in April 1, 2017[41]. According to the website of USMB CAIR Minnesota, “Siraj Wahhaj is one of the most admired Muslim leaders and speakers in America. He is the imam of Al-Taqwa Mosque in Brooklyn, NY and serves on the executive committee of the Muslim Alliance in North America (MANA). He previously served on the national board of the Council on American-Islamic Relations.”[42]
  • has tweeted on June 25, 2011 (“Arab Spring” – time), that: “my husband was abducted by #Bahrain‘s military | A woman’s ordeal after her husband was jailed after a military trial http://aje.me/mvJtwl”[43]. Apparently, her husband, Maher Judeh (a.k.a. Maher Abo Tamer), has expressed sympathy for Fatah, Hamas, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), George Habash, and Palestinian Authority police officer Amjad Sukkari “Abu Omar” who carried outa shooting attack at a checkpoint in Israel[44].
  • openly advocates Shariah law in TV programs[45] and tweets: “You’ll know when you’re living under Sharia Law if suddenly all your loans & credit cards become interest free. Sound nice, doesn’t it?”[46] / “@LaRebelleFleur shariah law is reasonable and once u read into the details it makes a lot of sense. People just know the basics”[47] / “Sharia Law is misunderstood & has been pushed as some evil Muslim agenda. Some Muslims r oppressors for sure https://com/rashaddrakeford/status/719300709871706112 …[48] / “Sharia is the Arabic translation of the Hebrew word Halakhah. Its also akin to canonic law. Get informed. #CounterActHate[49] / “Read this piece on #Sharia Law from the Associate Religion Editor at @HuffPostRelig. Educate yourself. https://www.google.com/amp/m.huffpost.com/us/entry/us_5788f567e4b03fc3ee507c01/amp?client=safari …[50];
  • called for Jihad against Trump administration during a speech at the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) convention in Chicago[51];
  • gave the Daesh one finger salute[52];
  • tweeted that: “When we write the history of Islam in America, the Nation of #Islam is an integral part of that history.”[53] – “Nation of Islam” leader, Louis Farrakhan is a well-known anti-Semite that uses to say “the Satanic Jews”[54].

Conclusions

  • USMB’s goal is the Islamist colonization of the US as part of Global Muslim Brotherhood’s goal – the building of the Global Caliphate with the capital in Jerusalem;
  • USMB’s strategy has been the one of “small steps”;
  • The strategy has followed the succession: the confessional / academic wing → the financial / economic wing → the social wing → the militant wing (it was an official branch of the organization until the mid-1970s) → the political wing supported by the media / think-tanks / civil society wing;
  • Linda Sarsour and her family have strong and visible ties with USMB organizations;
  • Linda Sarsour is a MB operative on US soil aiming to support the “going to be born” political wing – either a future political party or USMB affiliated politicians going to be elected in Congress/White House.

Annex 1

The ultra-conservative pan-Islamic political-social movement entitled Jama ‘At / Harakat Ikhwan al-Muslimeen (Ikhwan) – the Muslim Brotherhood[55] was founded in 1928 in the Egyptian city of Ismailia, by Hassan al-Bannā (1906-1949) – the son of the Hanabilah[56] imam ( Shaykh) Ahmad Abd al-Rahman al-Bann al-Sa’ati.

In the approximately 90 years of existence of the organization, there are several stages of transforming the Brotherhood from a local Islamic movement into a pan – Islamic organization, as follows:

  1. 1928-1938: corresponds to the interwar period, with two distinct stages:
  2. a) 1928-1935: consolidation within Egypt by social and proselytizing activities;
  3. b) 1935-1938: expansion within Egypt’s neighboring countries and in China.
  4. 1939 – 1945: founding of the Secret Apparatus – the militant, offensive wing, responsible for Movement’s violent actions. This stage corresponds to the period of the Second World War.

III. 1945 – 1953: amplifying political activism and conflicts with the Egyptian monarchy. Corresponds to the period between the end of the Second World War and the proclamation of the Republic of Egypt.

  1. 1953 – 1970: the stage of intensifying the conflict with the Egyptian nationalist, republican, secular regime and the global expansion. Corresponds to the period between the proclamation of the Republic of Egypt (June 18, 1953) and the death of President Gamal Abdel Nasser (September 28, 1970).
  2. 1970 – 1981: Global expansion and building the political wing. It corresponds to President’s Anwar el Sadat administration, which used the Muslim Brotherhood to counterbalance the Soviet influence in the region (Syria, Libya, Algeria etc). Confronted with public opprobrium and with the risk of Brotherhood’s dismantling due to the wave of Secret Apparatus’ atrocities, the second Supreme Leader, al-Hudaybi, has radically changed the strategy of the organization by creating the image of an ideological movement decided to give up the violent past. This strategy allowed the Brotherhood to survive, and later has substantiated the argument regarding Movement’s exclusive ideological character. Also, 1979’s geopolitical events – the soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the siege of the Great Mosque in Mecca Masjid al-Haram and the Islamic Revolution in Iran have amplified MB’s militancy. Thus, Brotherhood’s militants joined the al-MujaahidJihad combatants and fought in the Civil War in Afghanistan (1979-1989) and in the Arab-Israeli Wars (1973, 1971-1982).
  3. 1981 – 2011: President’s Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak governing period that may be separated into three distinct stages:
  4. a) 1981 – 1991: the development of the Muslim Brotherhood’s branches in South Asia and Europe and the strengthening of Movement’s political wing.

b). 1992 – 2001: Muslim Brotherhood’s dissemination within the former Yugoslavia and the former Eastern bloc and the “breakup” between Al Qa’ida and CIA. It is delimitated between the implosion of the former Soviet Empire and the 9/11 Al Qa’ida’s attacks against the US.

c).  2002 – 2011: Muslim Brotherhood’s network development in the mass-media, academia, think-tanks followed by re-branding in reformist movement; global expansion in the context the global war on terror; taking over political control in Turkey and triggering a conflict with Saudi Arabia regarding Jerusalem, the future capital of the Global Caliphate.

VII. 2011 – 2012: the “Arab Spring” – the wave of anarchy and insurgency that shattered the Middle East and the Northern Africa (MENA), resulting in the overthrow of Arab, secular, republican, nationalist regimes.

VIII. 2012 – 2013: Muslim Brotherhood’s administration in Egypt; the Islamist quadrilateral Egypt – Sudan – Turkey – Qatar; the emergence of ISIL; the failure of Libya.

  1. 2014 – Nowadays: the MB’s regrouping in Turkey, the emergence of DAESH, the migration crisis, the Gulf Cooperation Council crisis and the allegations of terrorist organization. It corresponds to the presidency of General Abdul Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi.

Brief conclusions:

  • Muslim Brotherhood’s goal is to build the Global Caliphate with the capital in Jerusalem;
  • Muslim Brotherhood’s strategy has been the one of “small steps”, originally applied in Egypt and then in all other states;
  • The strategy has followed the succession: the confessional / academic wing → the financial / economic wing → the social wing → the militant wing (it was an official branch of the organization until the mid-1970s) → the political wing supported by the media / think-tanks / civil society wing;
  • The global expansion of the network was carried out concentrically, around the Egyptian axis, and succeeded in encompassing almost all continents;
  • The alliances with other organizations have been built around common ideological targets (anti-Semitism / anti-Communism / anti-Liberalism / anti-Christianity – alliance with the Nazi regime; anti-Communism – alliance with CIA; anti-Christianity / anti-Liberalism – alliance with neo-Marxists / anarchists / separatists; the dispute with Saudi Arabia regarding the pilgrimage sites of Islam/the future capital of the Caliphate – the alliance with Iran);

 

[1]ANALYSIS: Holy Land Documents Point to Covert Muslim Brotherhood Structure In The U.S., GlobalMB,

29.08.2007, https://www.globalmbwatch.com/2007/08/29/analysis-holy-land-documents-point-covert-muslim-brotherhood-structure/ , accessed at 07.07.2017

[2]Robin Simcox, The Trump Administration Must Investigate the Muslim Brotherhood’s U.S. Activities, The Heritage Foundation, 20.04.2017, http://www.heritage.org/terrorism/report/the-trump-administration-must-investigate-the-muslim-brotherhoods-us-activities, accessed at 07.07.2017

[3]Scott W. Johnson, Coming Clean About CAIR, National Review, 22.08.2007, http://www.nationalreview.com/article/221895/coming-clean-about-cair-scott-w-johnson, accessed at 07.07.2017

[4]John Mintz, Douglas Farah, In Search Of Friends Among The Foes, Washington Post, 11.09.2004, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A12823-2004Sep10.html, accessed at 08.07.2017

[5]Ikhwan in America, https://www.investigativeproject.org/redirect/Ikhwan_in_American-Zeid_Al-Nomann.pdf, accessed at 07.07.2017

[6] http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/case_docs/1117.pdf, accessed at 23.08.2018

[7]Mohamed Akram Adlouni is the General Secretary of the Al Quds International Foundation, a Special Designated Global Terrorist entity, accused by the U.S. Treasury Department of financing Hamas. See: Thomas Quiggin, What Is the Muslim Brotherhood?, 08.02.2017,

https://medium.com/@GatestoneInst/what-is-the-muslim-brotherhood-ecb35bcdc43b, accessed at 23.08.2018

[8] Among which is the signer of the document, Akram.

[9] OBITUARY: Former Head of U.S. Muslim Brotherhood Dies, The Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch, 14.04.2009, https://www.globalmbwatch.com/2009/04/14/former-head-of-us-muslim-brotherhood-dies/, accessed at 07.07.2018

[10]http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/misc/20.pdf, accessed at 23.08.2018

[11]Abdullah Azzam, Document – Defense of the Muslim Lands, 01.02.2002,  http://english.religion.info/2002/02/01/document-defence-of-the-muslim-lands/, accessed at 07.07.2017

[12]Stephen E. Atkins, Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups, Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut London, 2004, pp.35-36  

[13]Stephen E. Atkins, idem. op.cit.

[14]Terrorism: Muslim Brotherhood, idem. op.cit.

[15]Profile: Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), History Commons, http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=maktab_al-khidamar, accessed at 07.07.2017

[16]Farhan Zahid, FOREIGN ANALYZES N°22 ORIGINS OF AL-QAEDA : REVISITING MAKTAB UL KHIDMAT AL MUJAHEDEEN (SERVICES BUREAU FOR THE HOLY WARRIORS), Centre Français de Recherche sur le Renseignement, http://www.cf2r.org/fr/foreign-analyzes/origins-of-al-qaeda-revisiting-maktab-ul-khidmat-al-mujahedeen.php, accessed at 07.07.2017

[17]Steven Emerson, Terrorists Among Us: Jihad in America, 1994; Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, idem. op.cit.

[18]Profile: Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), idem. op.cit.

[19]Bos Smith, Held Hostage At Masjid Al-Taqwa, Canadian Free Press, 28.04.2008, https://2005-09.newenglishreview.org/blog_direct_link.cfm?blog_id=14499, accessed at 21.08.2018

[20] Bos Smith, idem.op.cit.

[21]Profile: Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), idem. op.cit.

[22]Bill Trott, ‘Blind sheikh’ convicted in 1993 World Trade bombing dies in U.S. prison, Reuters, 18.02.2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-tradecenter-rahman-idUSKBN15X0KU, accessed at 07.07.2017

[23]Richard Miniter, Secretary Mattis: Time To Get Tough On Qatar, Forbes, 22.05.2017, https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardminiter/2017/04/22/secretary-mattis-time-to-get-tough-on-qatar/#181d53256311, accessed at 07.07.2017

[24]The Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, The structure and funding sources of the Muslim Brotherhood, CRETHI PLETHI, 19.06.2011, http://www.crethiplethi.com/the-structure-and-funding-sources-of-the-muslim-brotherhood/global-islam/2011/, accessed at 07.07.2017

[25]Mohannad Sabry, Muslim Brotherhood’s media machinations, Al Monitor, 29.07.2014,

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/07/muslim-brotherhood-media-egypt-propaganda.html, accessed at 07.07.2017; Shaimaa Ibrahim, A Study of Official Media Outlets of Muslim Brotherhood Group and Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt, The American University in Cairo: School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, May 2013

[26]Meira Svirsky, Muslim Brotherhood Inside American Colleges, CLARION project, 16.05.2013, accessed at 07.07.2017

[27]Chuck Ross, ‘Yikes!’: Influential Think Tanks In The Tank For Foreign Governments, The Daily Caller, 09.07.2014, http://dailycaller.com/2014/09/07/yikes-influential-think-tanks-in-the-tank-for-foreign-governments/, accessed at 07.07.2017

[28]Bob Dreyfuss, Al Jazeera’s Muslim Brotherhood Problem, The Nation, 10.07.2013, https://www.thenation.com/article/al-jazeeras-muslim-brotherhood-problem/, accessed at 07.07.2017

[29] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFwA31RjZxM, accessed at 07.08.2018

[30] https://www.facebook.com/isnahq/videos/linda-sarsour-gives-the-keynote-address-at-the-community-service-recognition-lun/10154538687786105/, accessed at 07.08.2018

[31] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00gwBw6CUFc, accessed at 07.08.2018

[32] “Jamil Sarsour Confession: On October 23, 1998, Sarsour was arrested by the GOI for his involvement with the HAMAS terorist organization, specifically, for providing financial and other assistance to HAMAS fugitive and military activist,’ A 1 Awadallah. At the time of his arrest, Sarsour was carrying $66,530.00, a personal telephone book and two American passports. Sarsour was interviewed and provided information concerning his and his brother, Salah’s activities in support of HAMAS over the last several years. During the course of his interview, Sarsour described his brother Salah Sarsour’s involvement with HAMAS and fund raising activities by the HLFRD, in Richardson, Texas on behalf of HAMAS. Sarsour stated that some of the members of s Islamic Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and his brothers Salah and Imad are involved in raising money in the name of HLFRD that is actually for HAMAS. (Exhibit102).” – see http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/case_docs/466.pdf#page=49, , accessed at 07.08.2018, p.48

[33]Souad Mekhennet, Under Attack as Muslims in the U.S., New York Times,  07.08.2012, https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/08/us/08iht-letter08.html, accessed at 07.08.2018

[34]Linda Sarsour arrested at Paul Ryan’s office, Al Jazeera, 06.03.2018,  https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/linda-sarsour-arrested-paul-ryan-office-180306103336945.html, accessed at 07.08.2018

[35]Haris Alic, Eight of Linda Sarsour’s Most Controversial Tweets, The Washington Free Beacon,

12.03.2018, https://freebeacon.com/culture/eight-linda-sarsours-controversial-tweets/, accessed at 07.08.2018

[36] https://www.ampalestine.org/newsroom/a-message-of-support-to-our-sister-linda-sarsour, accessed at 07.08.2018

[37]Steven Emerson, American Muslims for Palestine’s Web of Hamas Support, The Algemeiner, 14.12.2011, http://www.algemeiner.com/2011/12/14/american-muslims-for-palestines-web-of-hamas-support/, accessed at 07.08.2018

[38]American Muslims for Palestine, https://www.ampalestine.org/about-amp/staff, accessed at 07.08.2018

[39]Chuck Ross, EX-HAMAS FINANCIER SPOTTED WITH TURKISH PRESIDENT’S DAUGHTER AT US MUSLIM CONVENTION [VIDEO], the Daily Caller, 28.12.2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/12/28/ex-hamas-financier-spotted-with-turkish-presidents-daughter-at-us-muslim-convention-video/, accessed at 07.08.2018

[40]Council on American-Islamic Relations, CAIR Calls for #IStandWithLinda ‘Push Back’ Against Smear Campaign Targeting Linda Sarsour, 07.07.2017, https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cair-calls-for-istandwithlinda-push-back-against-smear-campaign-targeting-linda-sarsour-300484682.html, accessed at 07.08.2018

[41]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DOo8-_mlzo, accessed at 07.08.2018, min. 3.15 – 3.38

[42]Imam Siraj Wahhaj, CAIR Minessota, https://cairmn.com/2-uncategorised/313-imam-siraj-wahhaj.html, accessed at 07.08.2018

[43]https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/84670693056331776, accessed at 07.08.2018

[44] The Democrat/Jihadist Connection, https://liberalforum.net/viewtopic.php?t=25373, accessed at 07.08.2018

[45] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vR3c5xGlgOI, accessed at 07.08.2018

[46] https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/598327052727615488?lang=en, accessed at 07.08.2018

[47]https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/116922589967949824?lang=en, accessed at 07.08.2018

[48]https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/719301817771892737?lang=en, accessed at 07.08.2018

[49]https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/873576800428986369, accessed at 07.08.2018

[50]https://twitter.com/lsarsour/status/828045045433565184?lang=en, accessed at 07.08.2018

[51]Activist Linda Sarsour Calls For ‘Jihad’ Against Trump Administration, 07.07.2017, https://thepoliticalinsider.com/linda-sarsour-jihad/?source=TPIpost, accessed at 07.08.2018

[52]https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/5pk72z/linda_sarsour_muslim_brotherhoodhamas_operative , accessed at 07.08.2018

[53] Haris Alic, Eight of Linda Sarsour’s Most Controversial Tweets, The Washington Free Beacon,  12.03.2018, https://freebeacon.com/culture/eight-linda-sarsours-controversial-tweets/, accessed at 07.08.2018

[54] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tK5UJ8Z4zps, accessed at 07.08.2018

[55]Fatma Ozyagli, Hassan Al-Banna: The man who started it all, World Bulletin, http://www.worldbulletin.net/personage/115124/hassan-al-banna-the-man-who-started-it-all, accessed at 29.03.2017

[56]A follower of the ultraconservative Islamic legal school, founded by (Musnad Imam) Ahmad bin Hanbal (780-855), who completely rejects the personal reflection, claiming the strict application of the Qur’an and of the Sunna (custom).